Periodontitis or periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by microbial flora from oral cavity under certain conditions. It affects the gum and tooth supporting tissues and, if untreated, it will lead to tooth loss over time.
It is alarming that over 95% of people suffering from periodontal disease at various stages have no little idea about this, as the disease progresses progressively over time and has discrete symptoms.
The factors that contribute to the onset of this disorder are numerous and diverse. The most important determinant is the bacterial plaque. Without a proper dental hygiene, the bacterial plaque develops and has a destructive action. In addition, a number of factors such as smoking, genetic influence, age, but also some general health factors such as diabetes, certain drugs are well known as factors favoring this disease.
How to prevent it?
Paying more attention to dental hygiene. This involves the correct tooth brushing at least 2 times a day using suitable pastes and brushes, but also the use of products for cleaning of interdental spaces, as dental floss, oral rinse, interdental brushes.
In addition, in order to inhibit the onset of periodontal disease, regular dental visits, and professional hygiene are required to remove the dental stone and bacterial plaque by scaling and professional brushing.
Symptoms and signs
In the early stages, the symptoms are not alarming, but that does not make them insignificant. There is a slight inflammation of the gums that can bleed spontaneously or when brushing. Over time, the symptoms become more obvious. There is a bad breath and a bad taste in the mouth. The teeth start to look longer, there is more space between them and, ultimately, teeth become looser. In some cases, pus can be seen pus at the gumline. So, it all starts as a trivial gingivitis that, if ignored and untreated, can progress towards tooth decay.
The treatment depends a lot on the stage of the disease. The disease can be stopped in the early stages, due to impeccable daily hygiene, professional hygiene, and regular dental checkups. The treatment aims to eradicate the infection, to prevent gum and bone destruction around the teeth, and to prevent teeth mobilization. Depending on the severity of the disease, the dentist establishes a treatment plan adapted to each patient. The bacterial plaque has to be removed, therefore the local application of anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial agents or oral antibiotics may be required. If the bone defects are large a bone addition may be required in order to improve the bone support of the tooth.
Occasionally, prosthetic treatments, occlusal evaluation, and balancing could also be required, and a surgical treatment could be needed in severe cases. Patient cooperation is essential for the treatment success.
Assist. Prof. Dr. Mariana Caramida
Dentist, Smilemed Clinic
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